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Evaluation of Appropriate Geophysical Methods
This website presents a summary of the state-of-practice of geophysical imaging and NDT methods appropriate for a wide range of transportation problems. Advancements in computing capabilities, analysis software, graphic software, and survey methodology have contributed to significant gains in the value of geophysical and NDT methods, and have produced results that are more accurate and reliable than traditional approaches. Therefore, there is a need to provide geotechnical engineers with suitable geophysical tools to assist in the rational development of the survey methodology as well as in the selection of the appropriate methods, and interpretations.

Table 1 is prepared to provide an overview of suggested geophysical imaging and NDT methods used for highway geotechnical investigations, as described in Part I. These methods are listed in terms of engineering problems and applications of these technologies to highway design, construction, repair, and maintenance. The table is designed as a "Solution Matrix" that guides the user, without reading the entire web manual, to obtain an answer during the initial design phase of the survey. For more complex highway engineering problem, it is recommended that the user review specific sections to assess the most appropriate method(s) for solving highway engineering problems. Finally, the table has been organized in order of the subject material presented in the web manual
Table 1
Engineering Problem
Geophysical/NDT Solutions
Unknown Depth of Foundations
Sonic Echo/Impulse Response, Bending wave, Ultraseismic, Seismic Wave Reflection, Transient Force Vibration, Parallel Seismic, Induction Field, Borehole logging, Dynamic Foundation Response, Borehole Radar, Borehole Seismic
Integrity Testing of Foundations and Structures
Crosshole Sonic Logging, Crosshole Sonic Logging Tomography, Gamma-Gamma Density Logging, Singlehole Sonic Logging, Sonic Echo/Impulse Response, Ultraseismic Profiling, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Impact Echo, Ground Penetrating Radar, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, Acoustic Emissions, Radiography
Rebar Quality and Bonding
Half-cell Potential, Linear Polarization Resistance, Galvanostatic Pulse Technique, Electrochemical Noise, Acoustic Emissions, Magnetic Field Disturbance
Foundation Scour
Time Domain Reflectometry, Parallel Seismic, Ground Penetrating Radar, Continuous Seismic Reflection Profiling, Fathometer
Bridge Deck Stability
New Decks
Baseline Assessment
Existing Decks
Vibration Monitoring, Ground Penetrating Radar, Electromagnetic, Impact Echo, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves and Ultrasonic Surface Waves Methods, Half-Cell Corrosion Potential Mapping, Infrared Thermography
QA/QC Of New Pavements
Existing Pavements
Transportation / Geotechnical Methods
GPR, Impact Echo, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, Ultra Sonic Surface Wave (USW), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW)
Mapping Voids, Sinkholes, Abandoned Mines, and Other Cavities
Gravity, GPR, Resistivity , Seismic Refraction, Seismic Reflection, Rayleigh Waves Recorded with a Common Offset Array, Cross-borehole Seismic Tomography
Roadbed Clay Problems
Conductivity Measurements, Resistivity Measurements, Time Domain Electromagnetic Soundings, Induced Polarization
Mapping Bedrock, Lithologies, Sand & Gravel Deposits, Groundwater Surface, and Flow
Ground Penetrating Radar, Seismic Refraction, Compressional and Shear Wave Reflection, Resistivity, Time Domain Electromagnetic, Conductivity Measurements, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, Gravity, Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic, Borehole Televiewer, Induced Polarization, Borehole Gamma and HydroPhysical Logging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Self Potential, Electroseismic
Determining Engineering Properties and Rippability of Soil and Rock
Seismic Refraction, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Ground Penetrating Radar, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, Suspension Logging, Full Waveform Sonic Logging, Crosshole Shear
Utility Locator, Detecting Underground Storage Tank, UXO and Contaminant Plumes
Magnetic, Electromagnetic, Ground Penetrating Radar, Acoustic Pipe Tracer, Metal Detectors, resistivity, Induced Polarization, Refraction
Vibration Caused By Traffic, Construction, and Blasting
Vibration Monitoring